Chapter 1 - The importance of chemical toxicants in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) provision
1.5 Chapter summary, 1.6 References
Video message from the former Director of US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Dr. Linda Birnbaum, at the inaugural meeting of the WASH-Toxics Working Group, October 2016.
Summarizing Chapter 1:
Globalization has led to widespread chemical pollution in developing countries. Exposure to many of these chemical substances causes deleterious effects on the immune system, impairing the body’s response to infectious diseases and reducing the effectiveness of vaccinations and WASH interventions.
Environmental scientists, engineers, and toxicologists have long worried about the damaging impacts of chemical pollutants on the environment and human health. However, so far WASH development has neglected this critical topic.
Recent research has indicated that mitigating chemical exposures is a necessary-but-insufficient condition for achieving transformational WASH outcomes[18, 28].
The purpose of this book is to provide WASH practitioners, and really anyone whose responsibility is the safety of drinking water in their household or community, with the relevant background on the importance and treatability of chemicals in low-resource settings. Adsorption processes provide the currently best available, cost-effective means for controlling many chemical pollutants in water. Biochar adsorbent is a material that can be made locally using very simple and inexpensive technology for use in water treatment. The chapters that follow provide the necessary minimum technical knowledge of adsorption processes, along with practical tools for making biochar adsorbent, integrating biochar treatment for chemical pollutants with other unit processes that remove or inactivate biological pathogens, and the design, operation, and monitoring of biochar water treatment systems in low-resource settings.
This book represents the culmination of nearly fifteen years of field and laboratory research by myself and many cherished colleagues. Our research continues to improve biochar water treatment and extend it into new domains. However, the time is ripe to translate our results from “academicspeak” published in peer-reviewed journals into an accessible, actionable field manual. I aim to provide in these pages a compendium of best-practices for implementing biochar water treatment that are based on the current state-of-the-art. My hope – our hope – is to highlight a historically neglected component of WASH programming, and provide a “shovel-ready” solution on the path to achieving transformational WASH for all.
1.6 Chapter 1 References
1. Wang, L., CAS reaches 150 millionth substance, in Chemical & Engineering News. 2019, American Chemical Society.
2. Burton, G.A., et al., Slipping through the Cracks: Why is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Not Funding Extramural Research on Chemicals in Our Environment? Environmental Science & Technology, 2017. 51(2): p. 755-756.
3. Wang, Z., et al., Toward a Global Understanding of Chemical Pollution: A First Comprehensive Analysis of National and Regional Chemical Inventories. Environmental Science & Technology, 2020. 54(5): p. 2575-2584.
4. WHO, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First Addendum 2011.
5. Kearns, J.P., et al., Underrepresented groups in WaSH – the overlooked role of chemical toxicants in water and health. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 2019.
6. Escher, B.I., H.M. Stapleton, and E.L. Schymanski, Tracking complex mixtures of chemicals in our changing environment. Science, 2020. 367(6476): p. 388.
7. Landrigan, P.J., et al., Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Changing Global Patterns of Exposure and Disease. Annals of Global Health, 2016. 82(1): p. 10-19.
8. Weiss, F.T., et al., Chemical Pollution in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 2016, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology: Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
9. Landrigan, P.J., et al., The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. Lancet, 2018. 391(10119): p. 462-512.
10. Maughan, T., The dystopian lake filled by the world’s tech lust, in BBC Future. 2015.
11. RT-Documentary, Congo, My Precious. The Curse of the coltan mines in Congo. 2017.
12. Larsson, D.G.J., C. de Pedro, and N. Paxeus, Effluent from drug manufactures contains extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2007. 148(3): p. 751-755.
13. ToxiCity: life at Agbobloshie, the world's largest e-waste dump in Ghana. RT_Documentary. 2016 June 1, 2016; .
14. BaselAction, Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia. 2013.
15. Journeyman Pictures, “The Toxic E-Waste Trade Killing Pakistan's Poorest,” 2016, Wild Angle Productions.
16. Loha, K.M., et al., Import, disposal, and health impacts of pesticides in the East Africa Rift(EAR) zone: A review on management and policy analysis. Crop Protection, 2018. 112: p. 322-331.
17. Thomas, E., Toward a New Field of Global Engineering. Sustainability, 2019. 11(14).
18. Kearns, J., The role of chemical exposures in reducing the effectiveness of water–sanitation–hygiene interventions in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. WIREs Water, 2020. n/a(n/a): p. e1478.
19. Vermeulen, R., et al., The exposome and health: Where chemistry meets biology. Science, 2020. 367(6476): p. 392.
20. Landrigan, P.J. and R. Fuller, Pollution, health and development: the need for a new paradigm, in Reviews on Environmental Health. 2016. p. 121.
21. SDG6. 2016 April 20, 2020]; Available from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg6.
22. UN-SDP United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, Open Working Group proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. 2015.
23. Smiley, S.L. and J. Stoler, Socio-environmental confounders of safe water interventions. WIREs Water, 2020. n/a(n/a): p. e1438.
24. UNICEF/WHO, Progress on Sanitaion and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. 2015.
25. WHO/UNICEF, Safely managed drinking water - thematic report on drinking water 2017. 2017, WHO: Geneva, Switzerland.
26. Pickering, A.J., et al., The WASH Benefits and SHINE trials: interpretation of WASH intervention effects on linear growth and diarrhoea.Lancet Glob Health, 2019. 7(8): p. e1139-e1146.
27. Bivins, A., et al., Selecting Household Water Treatment Options on the Basis of World Health Organization Performance Testing Protocols.Environmental Science & Technology, 2019. 53(9): p. 5043-5051.
28. Kearns, J., Moving towards transformational WASH. Lancet Glob Health, 2019. 7(11): p. e1493.
29. Prendergast, A.J., et al., Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on stunting and anaemia among HIV-exposed children in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2019. 3(2): p. 77-90.
30. Stewart, C.P., et al., Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on child development in rural Kenya (WASH Benefits Kenya): a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2018. 2(4): p. 269-280.
31. Humphrey, J.H., et al., Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Global Health, 2019. 7(1): p. E132-E147.
32. Luby, S.P., et al., Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on diarrhoea and child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet Global Health, 2018. 6(3): p. E302-E315.
33. Remais, J.V., et al., Convergence of non-communicable and infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Epidemiol, 2013. 42(1): p. 221-7.
34. Winans, B., M.C. Humble, and B.P. Lawrence, Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system: a missing link in the global battle against infectious disease? Reprod Toxicol, 2011. 31(3): p. 327-36.
35. Erickson, B.E., Linking pollution and infectious disease: Chemicals and pathogens interact to weaken the immune system, reduce vaccine efficacy, and increase pathogen virulence, in Chemical & Engineering News. 2019, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 28-33.
36. Granum, B., et al., Pre-natal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may be associated with altered vaccine antibody levels and immune-related health outcomes in early childhood. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 2013. 10(4): p. 373-379.
37. Suk, W.A. and S. Mishamandani, Changing exposures in a changing world: models for reducing the burden of disease, in Reviews on Environmental Health. 2016. p. 93.
38. Kearns, J.P., The role of chemical exposures in reducing the effectiveness of water-sanitation-hygiene (WASH) interventions in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs) - Water, 2020: p. in review.
39. Vrijheid, M., et al., Environmental pollutants and child health-A review of recent concerns. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2016. 219(4-5): p. 331-42.
40. Bove, H., et al., Ambient black carbon particles reach the fetal side of human placenta. Nat Commun, 2019. 10(1): p. 3866.
41. Pajewska-Szmyt, M., E. Sinkiewicz-Darol, and R. Gadzała-Kopciuch, The impact of environmental pollution on the quality of mother's milk.Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019. 26(8): p. 7405-7427.
42. Miah, S.J., et al., Unsafe Use of Pesticide and Its Impact on Health of Farmers: A Case Study in Burichong Upazila, Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 2014. 8: p. 57-67.
43. Sapbamrer, R. and S. Nata, Health symptoms related to pesticide exposure and agricultural tasks among rice farmers from northern Thailand.Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 2014. 19(1): p. 12-20.
44. Manyilizu, W.B., et al., Self-Reported Symptoms and Pesticide Use among Farm Workers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study. Toxics, 2017. 5(4).
45. Tarar, M.A., et al., EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON MALE FARMER'S HEALTH: A STUDY OF MUZAFFAR GARH. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2019. 56(4): p. 1021-1030.
46. Kim, H.M., et al., The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Korean Journal of Family Medicine, 2017. 38(4): p. 233-238.
47. Islam, R., et al., Bioaccumulation and adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on ecosystems and human exposure: A review study on Bangladesh perspectives. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 2018. 12: p. 115-131.
48. Alam, M.N., et al., Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh. Journal of Chemistry, 2015.
49. Wallner, P., et al., Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2016. 13(7).
50. de Silva, P.S., et al., Association of urinary phenolic compounds, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrheal symptoms: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environmental Pollution, 2017. 229: p. 621-626.
51. Napier, M.D., et al., Exposure to Human-Associated Chemical Markers of Fecal Contamination and Self-Reported Illness among Swimmers at Recreational Beaches. Environmental Science & Technology, 2018. 52(13): p. 7513-7523.
52. Bergkvist, C., et al., Occurrence and levels of organochlorine compounds in human breast milk in Bangladesh. Chemosphere, 2012. 88(7): p. 784-790.
53. Luo, D., et al., Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants and the Risk of Low Birth Weight: A Nested Case-Control Study in China. Environmental Science & Technology, 2020. 54(6): p. 3375-3385.
54. UNSD, United Nations Energy Statistics Database. 2011, United Nations Statistics Division.
55. Mason, W.P., Water Supply: Considered Principally from a Sanitary Standpoint. Fourth Edition ed. 1918, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
56. Schreinemachers, P., S. Sringarm, and A. Sirijinda, The role of synthetic pesticides in the intensification of highland agriculture in Thailand.Crop Protection, 2011. 30(11): p. 1430-1437.
57. PAN. PAN Pesticide Database. 2020 [accessed June 17, 2016]; Available from: http://www.pesticideinfo.org
58. Abhilash, P.C. and N. Singh, Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009. 165(1): p. 1-12.
59. Kearns, J.P., D.R.U. Knappe, and R.S. Summers, Synthetic organic water contaminants in developing communities: an overlooked challenge addressed by adsorption with locally generated char. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 2014. 4(3): p. 422-436.
60. Fiedler, N., et al., Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroid pesticides among Thai children. NeuroToxicology, 2015. 48(Supplement C): p. 90-99.
61. Panuwet, P., et al., Urinary pesticide metabolites in school students from northern Thailand. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2009. 212(3): p. 288-297.
62. Stuetz, W., et al., Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk of a Hmong hill tribe living in Northern Thailand. Science of the Total Environment, 2001. 273(1-3): p. 53-60.
63. WTWG. WASH-Toxics Working Group. 2016 [cited 2016; Available from: https://www.aqsolutions.org/wash-toxics-working-group/.